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Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, second unified edition, English volume

Difference between revisions of "51"

Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, second unified edition, English vol.
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(Eugen Grebenik et al., first edition 1958)
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=== 510 ===
 
=== 510 ===
  
At the close of {{TextTerm|married life|1}} or {{TextTerm|conjugal life|1}}, the {{NoteTerm|end of union}} coincides with the {{TextTerm|dissolution of marriage|3}}, i.e. the breaking of all legal obligations resulting from the status of spouse, including the removal of legal obstacles to a new marriage. If a marriage is dissolved by death the surviving spouse is called a {{TextTerm|widower|4}} if male and a {{TextTerm|widom|5}} if female. {{TextTerm|Widowed persons|6}} live in a state of {{TextTerm|widowhood|7}}.
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{{TextTerm|Dissolution of marriage|1|510|IndexEntry=dissolution, marriage|OtherIndexEntry=marriage, dissolution of}} (cf. {{RefNumber|50|1|.2}}) may take place by the death of one of the spouses ({{RefNumber|50|1|.5}}), or, in countries where this is permissible, by process of law or by custom. If a marriage is dissolved by death the surviving spouse is called a {{TextTerm|widower|2|510}} if male and a {{TextTerm|widow|3|510}} if female. {{TextTerm|Widowed persons|4|510|IndexEntry=widowed, person|OtherIndexEntry=person, widowed}} live in a state of {{TextTerm|widowhood|5|510}}.
  
 
=== 511 ===
 
=== 511 ===
  
Where {{TextTerm|divorce|1}} as an institution is recognized, the dissolution of ''marriage'' ({{RefNumber|51|0|2}}) may take place through the granting of a {{TextTerm|decree of divorce|2}} to one of the spouses. In some countries a spouse may be {{TextTerm|repudiated|3}} by the other. Persons whose marriages have been dissolved by divorce are called {{TextTerm|divorced persons|4}}. The French words {{TextTerm|divorcee|6}} (woman) or {{TextTerm|divorce|5}} (man) are sometimes used in English, though the masculine form is rare.
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Where {{TextTerm|divorce|1|511}} as an institution is recognized, the dissolution of marriage ({{RefNumber|50|1|.1}}) may take place through one of the spouses ({{RefNumber|50|1|.5}}) being granted a {{TextTerm|decree of divorce|2|511|OtherIndexEntry=divorce, decree of}}. In some countries a spouse may be {{TextTerm|repudiated|3|511|IndexEntry=repudiate}} by the other. Persons whose marriages have been dissolved by divorce are called {{TextTerm|divorced persons|4|511|IndexEntry=divorced person|OtherIndexEntry=person, divorced}}. The French words {{TextTerm|divorcee|5|511|IndexEntry=divorcé}} (feminine) or {{TextTerm|divorce|6|511|IndexEntry=divorcée}} (masculine) are sometimes used in English, though the masculine term is rare.
{{Note|1| {{NoteTerm|Divorce}}, n. and v.}}
 
  
 
=== 512 ===
 
=== 512 ===
  
In some countries the principle of the {{NoteTerm|indissolubility of marriage}} is upheld by law or custom and ''divorce'' ({{RefNumber|51|1|1}}) is not allowed; only the death of one of the ''spouses'' ({{RefNumber|50|1|5}}) may bring about ''dissolution of the marriage'' ({{RefNumber|51|0|3}}). Under any legal system, however, lack of harmony may lead to {{TextTerm|separation|2}} of the spouses. This may take the form of a {{TextTerm|de facto separation|3}}, either through common consent or as the result of the {{TextTerm|desertion|4}} of one of the spouses by the other. Or it may take the form of a {{TextTerm|legal separation|5}} or {{TextTerm|judicial separation|5}}. A judicial separation absolves the parties from certain obligations, including the duty of living together, or cohabitation, but does not enable either of them to contract a new marriage. Persons whose marriages have been broken by separation are called {{TextTerm|separated persons|6}}. Marriages in which the spouses no longer cohabit but which have not been legally dissolved may be called {{TextTerm|broken marriages|7}}.
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In many countries including some in which the principle of the {{TextTerm|indissolubility of marriage|1|512|OtherIndexEntry=marriage indissolubility}} is upheld by the law, there may yet exist {{TextTerm|judicial separation|2|512|IndexEntry=separation, judicial}} sometimes called {{TextTerm|separation a mensa et toro|2|512|2}}. A judicial separation absolves the parties from certain obligations, including the duty of living together or {{TextTerm|cohabitation|3|512}} (cf. {{RefNumber|50|3|.3}}), but does not enable either of them to contract a new marriage. Persons whose marriages have been broken by a separation are called {{TextTerm|separated persons|4|512|IndexEntry=separated person|OtherIndexEntry=person, separated}}. Dissolution of marriage by a {{TextTerm|de facto separation|5|512}}, or the {{TextTerm|desertion|6|512}} of one of the spouses by the other is not uncommon in some societies. Such separation must be distinguished from judicial separation. Marriages in which the spouses no longer cohabit, but which have not been legally dissolved may be called {{TextTerm|broken marriages|7|512|IndexEntry=broken marriage|OtherIndexEntry=marriage, broken}}.
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{{Note|2| In English law, both divorce and judicial separation may be granted by the High Court of Justice. There is also separation by means of a {{NoteTerm|separation order}} granted by a Court of Petty Sessions, the lowest court in the judicial hierarchy,}}
  
 
=== 513 ===
 
=== 513 ===
  
{{TextTerm|A decree of nullity|1}} or an {{TextTerm|annulment of marriage|1}} is a declaration by a court of law that, although a marriage ceremony has taken place, there has been no {{TextTerm|valid marriage|2}}. The expression {{TextTerm|dissolved marriage|3}} is frequently understood to include cases of annulments and of legal separation, although legally the marriage is not dissolved. The term ''end of union'' ({{RefNumber|51|0|2}}) is more appropriate than dissolution in such cases and may also refer to unions other than marriage.
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A {{TextTerm|decree of nullity|1|513|OtherIndexEntry=nullity, decree of}} or an {{TextTerm|annulment of marriage|1|513|2|OtherIndexEntry=marriage, annulment of}} is a declaration by aco urt of law that, although a marriage ceremony has taken place, there has been no {{TextTerm|valid marriage|2|513|OtherIndexEntry=marriage, valid}}. Although legally a marriage is not dissolved by a {{NonRefTerm|de facto}} separation ({{RefNumber|51|2|.5}}), the expression {{TextTerm|dissolved marriage|3|513|OtherIndexEntry=marriage, dissolved}} is frequently understood to include such cases and, if they are taken into account at all, annulments. In their extended uses, the expressions "broken marriage" and "dissolved marriage" have the same meaning.
  
 
=== 514 ===
 
=== 514 ===
  
From a legal point of view, any person who meets the conditions set by law or custom to contract a marriage is {{TextTerm|marriageable|1}}, and the {{TextTerm|marriageable population|2}} is made up of such persons; the {{TextTerm|non-marriageable population|3}} consists of those who are not free to do so by law or custom. The {{TextTerm|marriage market|4}}, the group of persons among whom {{TextTerm|mate selection|6}} takes place however, does not include all marriageable persons; {{TextTerm|candidates to marriage|7}} include only those who are not excluded, at least temporarily, by reasons of health or other circumstances from the marriage market. Widowed or divorced persons may contract a new marriage; there is thus a distinction between a {{TextTerm|first marriage|8}} and a marriage of higher order, or {{TextTerm|remarriage|9}}. Because the {{TextTerm|order of marriage|10}} may differ for the two spouses, the term "first marriage" is ambiguous unless specified as referring to ''groom'' ({{RefNumber|50|1|6}}*) or to ''bride'' ({{RefNumber|50|1|7}}*) or to both parties; unless otherwise specified, it refers to a marriage between a bachelor ({{RefNumber|51|5|3}}) and a spinster ({{RefNumber|51|5|4}}).
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For demographic purposes a distinction is sometimes drawn between the {{TextTerm|marriageable population|1|514|OtherIndexEntry=population, marriageable}}, i.e., persons who are legally free to contract a marriage, and the {{TextTerm|non-marriageable population|2|514|OtherIndexEntry=population, non-marriageable}}, i. c, those who are not free to do so. Widowed or divorced persons may contract a new marriage; there is thus a distinction between a {{TextTerm|first marriage|3|514|IndexEntry=first marriage rate|OtherIndexEntry=marriage, first}} and a marriage of a higher order sometimes called a {{TextTerm|remarriage|4|514}}. Because the {{TextTerm|order of marriage|5|514|OtherIndexEntry=marriage order}} may differ for the two spouses ({{RefNumber|50|1|.5}}), the term "first marriage" is ambiguous unless specified as referring to groom ({{RefNumber|50|1|.6}}*) or to bride ({{RefNumber|50|1|.7}}*) or to both parties. Some demographers limit the term "first marriage", unless otherwise specified, to a marriage between, a bachelor ({{RefNumber|51|5|.3}}) and a spinster ({{RefNumber|51|5|.4}}).
{{Note|9| {{NoteTerm|Remarriage}}, n. - {{NoteTerm|remarry}}, v. - {{NoteTerm|remarried}}, adj.}}
 
  
 
=== 515 ===
 
=== 515 ===
  
The population may be divided into different groups by {{TextTerm|conjugal status|1}}, {{TextTerm|marital status|1}} or {{TextTerm|marital condition|1}}. {{TextTerm|Single|2}} persons, {{TextTerm|bachelors|3}} (men) and {{TextTerm|spinsters|4}} (women), are those who have never been married; they are also sometimes called the {{TextTerm|never-married|2}} class. The class of {{TextTerm|married persons|5}}, {{TextTerm|married men|6}} and {{TextTerm|married women|7}}, consists of those who have been married and whose marriages have not been ''dissolved'' ({{RefNumber|51|3|3}}). All persons except single persons are {{TextTerm|ever-married persons|8}}.
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The population may be divided into different groups by {{TextTerm|civil status|1|515|OtherIndexEntry=status, civil}}, {{TextTerm|conjugal status|1|515|2|IndexEntry=marital status|OtherIndexEntry=status, marital}}, {{TextTerm|marital status|1|515|3|IndexEntry=marital condition|OtherIndexEntry=condition, marital}} or {{TextTerm|marital condition|1|515|4|IndexEntry=status, conjugal}}. {{TextTerm|Single|2|515}} persons, {{TextTerm|bachelors|3|515|IndexEntry=bachelor}} and {{TextTerm|spinsters|4|515|IndexEntry=spinster}} are those who have never been married; they are also sometimes called the {{TextTerm|never-married|2|515|2|IndexEntry=never married}} class. The class of {{TextTerm|married persons|5|515|IndexEntry=married person|OtherIndexEntry=person, married}}, {{TextTerm|married men|6|515|IndexEntry=married man|OtherIndexEntry=man married}} and {{TextTerm|married women|7|515|IndexEntry=married woman|OtherIndexEntry=woman, married}}, consists of those who have been married and whose marriages have not been dissolved ({{RefNumber|51|0|.1}}). All persons except the single are {{TextTerm|ever-married persons|8|515|IndexEntry=ever-married person|OtherIndexEntry=person, ever-married}}.
{{Note|2| A synonym is {{NoteTerm|celibate}}, adj. - {{NoteTerm|celibacy}}, n.: the state of being single.}}
 
  
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{{SummaryShort}}
 
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{{OtherLanguages|51}}
 
{{OtherLanguages|51}}

Revision as of 19:40, 7 November 2009


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Go to: Introduction to Demopædia | Instructions on use | Downloads
Chapters: Preface | 1. General concepts | 2. The treatment and processing of population statistics | 3. Distribution and classification of the population | 4. Mortality and morbidity | 5. Nuptiality | 6. Fertility | 7. Population growth and replacement | 8. Spatial mobility | 9. Economic and social aspects of demography
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Index: Global Index | Index of chapter 1 | Index of chapter 2 | Index of chapter 3 | Index of chapter 4 | Index of chapter 5 | Index of chapter 6 | Index of chapter 7 | Index of chapter 8 | Index of chapter 9


510

Dissolution of marriage 1 (cf. 501-.2) may take place by the death of one of the spouses (501-.5), or, in countries where this is permissible, by process of law or by custom. If a marriage is dissolved by death the surviving spouse is called a widower 2 if male and a widow 3 if female. Widowed persons 4 live in a state of widowhood 5.

511

Where divorce 1 as an institution is recognized, the dissolution of marriage (501-.1) may take place through one of the spouses (501-.5) being granted a decree of divorce 2. In some countries a spouse may be repudiated 3 by the other. Persons whose marriages have been dissolved by divorce are called divorced persons 4. The French words divorcee 5 (feminine) or divorce 6 (masculine) are sometimes used in English, though the masculine term is rare.

512

In many countries including some in which the principle of the indissolubility of marriage 1 is upheld by the law, there may yet exist judicial separation 2 sometimes called separation a mensa et toro 2. A judicial separation absolves the parties from certain obligations, including the duty of living together or cohabitation 3 (cf. 503-.3), but does not enable either of them to contract a new marriage. Persons whose marriages have been broken by a separation are called separated persons 4. Dissolution of marriage by a de facto separation 5, or the desertion 6 of one of the spouses by the other is not uncommon in some societies. Such separation must be distinguished from judicial separation. Marriages in which the spouses no longer cohabit, but which have not been legally dissolved may be called broken marriages 7.

  • 2. In English law, both divorce and judicial separation may be granted by the High Court of Justice. There is also separation by means of a separation order granted by a Court of Petty Sessions, the lowest court in the judicial hierarchy,

513

A decree of nullity 1 or an annulment of marriage 1 is a declaration by aco urt of law that, although a marriage ceremony has taken place, there has been no valid marriage 2. Although legally a marriage is not dissolved by a de facto separation (512-.5), the expression dissolved marriage 3 is frequently understood to include such cases and, if they are taken into account at all, annulments. In their extended uses, the expressions "broken marriage" and "dissolved marriage" have the same meaning.

514

For demographic purposes a distinction is sometimes drawn between the marriageable population 1, i.e., persons who are legally free to contract a marriage, and the non-marriageable population 2, i. c, those who are not free to do so. Widowed or divorced persons may contract a new marriage; there is thus a distinction between a first marriage 3 and a marriage of a higher order sometimes called a remarriage 4. Because the order of marriage 5 may differ for the two spouses (501-.5), the term "first marriage" is ambiguous unless specified as referring to groom (501-.6*) or to bride (501-.7*) or to both parties. Some demographers limit the term "first marriage", unless otherwise specified, to a marriage between, a bachelor (515-.3) and a spinster (515-.4).

515

The population may be divided into different groups by civil status 1, conjugal status 1, marital status 1 or marital condition 1. Single 2 persons, bachelors 3 and spinsters 4 are those who have never been married; they are also sometimes called the never-married 2 class. The class of married persons 5, married men 6 and married women 7, consists of those who have been married and whose marriages have not been dissolved (510-.1). All persons except the single are ever-married persons 8.

* * *

Go to: Introduction to Demopædia | Instructions on use | Downloads
Chapters: Preface | 1. General concepts | 2. The treatment and processing of population statistics | 3. Distribution and classification of the population | 4. Mortality and morbidity | 5. Nuptiality | 6. Fertility | 7. Population growth and replacement | 8. Spatial mobility | 9. Economic and social aspects of demography
Pages: 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 80 | 81 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93
Index: Global Index | Index of chapter 1 | Index of chapter 2 | Index of chapter 3 | Index of chapter 4 | Index of chapter 5 | Index of chapter 6 | Index of chapter 7 | Index of chapter 8 | Index of chapter 9