**The Demopædia Encyclopedia on Population is under heavy modernization and maintenance. Outputs could look bizarre, sorry for the temporary inconvenience**

# Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, second unified edition, English volume

# Place-of-birh statistics

**Place-of-birh statistics {{{CompleteIndexTerm}}}**

{{Lang translation -{{{Lang}}}}} | |
---|---|

{{Lang section -{{{Lang}}}}} | [[:{{{Lang}}}-:81#814|{{Lang name -{{{Lang}}}}} 814]] {{{content}}} |

Where it is not possible to determine migration directly, indirect estimates of net migration may be obtained by the **residual method** ^{1} or **method of residues** ^{1} in which the change in population between two dates is compared with the change due to natural growth; the difference between the two figures is attributed to migration. The **vital statistics method** ^{2} consists of computing the difference between total population change, as assessed from two censuses, and *natural increase* (701-7) during the intercensal period. The **survival ratio method** ^{3} is commonly used to estimate net migration by age; it does not require actual death statistics. *Survival ratios* are derived from life tables and are applied to a sub-population in one census to give expected numbers by age at the time of the other census. A comparison between the observed and the expected population may be used to estimate the balance of migration by age for the subpopulation. When **place-of-birth statistics** ^{4★} (813-3) by age and current residence are available in two consecutive censuses, it is possible to make indirect estimates of migration streams.

- 2. The equation showing that the difference between total population change and natural increase is equal to migration has sometimes received the name of
**balancing equation**. In order to use it for the estimation of net migration, one must assume that*omissions*(230-3) and*multiple countings*(230-5) are equal for both censuses. - 3. The major variants of this procedure are called the
**life table survival ratio method**and the**national census survival ratio method**. In the**forward survival ratio method**, the population at the beginning of an intercensal period serves to estimate the expected population at the end of the period, and the procedure is reversed in the**reverse survival ratio method**; the**average survival ratio method**combines these two approaches.