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Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, second unified edition, English volume
321-5 (Double checked)
- th-ii: ความเป็นมนุษย์
- it-ii: uomo
- it-ii: essere umano
- fr-ii: être humain
- fr-ii: homme
- French: 321-5 (help) Translated French term:
- French: être humain. This term, expression or paragraph was not translated and was missing according to the 1981-standard (French). It has been translated and is added to the Category:Coherent with the 1981-standard (French):
- Le mot homme5 s’emploie également au sens général d’être humain 5.--Nicolas Brouard 19:58, 30 December 2009 (UTC)
- The Trilingual Demographic Dictionary Arabic-English-French of 1988 uses human being*.--Nicolas Brouard 19:14, 11 June 2012 (CEST)
- de-ii: Mensch
- ar-ii: انسان
- pl-ii: istota ludzka
- pl-ii: człowiek
- es-ii: hombre
- es-ii: ser humano
- cs-ii: člověk
322 5 age at next birthday (Double checked)
- What self-respecting demographer would use 'age at next birthday'????
- The person may die before the birthday so how would an actuary use age moved forward?????--Stan BECKER 18:46, 29 September 2014 (CEST)
- In the first English edition of Grebenik en-i:32#322: Statisticians often round off the age to the number of complete years lived, and this is called age last birthday. Where the fraction of the last complete year lived is counted as a whole year, as in some actuarial applications, we speak of age next birthday. Occasionally age at nearest birthday is given, where the age is rounded to the nearest integer.
- Thus Grebenik said "age last birthday" without "at", would it be better? --Nicolas Brouard (talk) 11:12, 7 November 2017 (CET)
323-5 (Double checked)
- th-ii: เด็กวัยกินนม
- ms-ii: Bayi masih menyusu
- it-ii: lattante
- fr-ii: nourrisson
- French: 323-5 (help) Translated French term:
- French: nourrisson. This term, expression or paragraph was not translated and was missing according to the 1981-standard (French). It has been translated and is added to the Category:Coherent with the 1981-standard (French):
- French Edition of 1981: Le mot nourrisson 5 ne s’applique, à proprement parler, qu’aux enfants qui n’ont pas encore été sevrés. Le mot bébé 6, par lequel on désigne d’ordinaire un enfant incapable de marcher seul est peu usité en démographie; on lui préfère l’expression enfant en bas âge 6.
- English edition of 1982: In the very early days of life, the child is called newborn 4. The term infant 6 may be used to denote a child who has not reached its first birthday, though in colloquial language it may be applied to slightly older children.--Nicolas Brouard 19:58, 30 December 2009 (UTC)
- An infant may or may not be breast-fed. The status of a young child (typically under one year of age) as infant is an issue of the age of the child, nothing more. The question of whether a child is nursing, still breast-feeding or at the breast can not be resolved with reference to the English-language term infant.--Herbert SMITH 17:40, 30 November 2012 (CET)
- In an mail received on September 2 2013, Joel Cohen wrote: nourrisson <--> nursling. It took me a while to remember this standard English word. Please forward to your colleague working on Demopaedia. Thanks!
- I don't know how old is the English term "nursling". At least it appeared in the English literature in the early 20th century with a book entitled "The nursling: The feeding and hygiene of premature and full-term infants" (1907)". The title was translated from Le nourrisson: alimentation et hygiène - enfants débiles, enfants nés à terme, a book written by a French obstetrician Pierre-Constant Budin who promoted not only breastfeeding but also the used of sterilized milk if natural milk was failing.
- Later in 1917, in an book published in New-York by George van Schaick, we can read (http://www.etymology-dictionary.com/nursling), "I presume that a nursling is the only really normal human being,". If you read the following context (at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/33218/33218-h/33218-h.htm), the comment of Gordon regarding the Babe Paul proved that a nursling was not as cherished as today:
- "I presume that a nursling is the only really normal human being," remarked Gordon. "He possesses but the most natural desires, has no ambitions unconnected with feeding and sleeping, and expresses his emotions without concealment. Affectation is foreign to him, and his virtues and vices are still in abeyance."
- "Paul," declared Frances, indignantly, "is extremely intelligent and has no vices at all."
- But the French word nourrisson looks also old and sometimes pejorative, probably in the same sense that Gordon used it.
- Thus I will vote for nursling.--Nicolas Brouard 12:48, 2 September 2013 (CEST)
- Dear all, I had a look on two sources.
- In the first one (A glossary of certain child welfare terms in Spanish, Portuguese, French and English, United States department of labor, Children’s Bureau,1942), I found
- Esp-anglais - Nino de pecho : breast-fed child
- Ang-esp - Nursling : see nursing infant
- Angl-esp - Nursing infant : lactante ; nino de pecho
- Esp-ang - Lactante : nursing infant
- Ang-por - Nursling : criança de peito ; lactante
- Fr-ang – Nourrisson : infant ; nursling
- Ang-fra - the word Nursling does not appear in this glossary.
- In the second source (W. Cadogan, An Essay upon Nursing and the Management of Children from their birth to three years of age, London, 1748 (9th edition in 1769, 10th edition in 1782), the author who was physician to the Foundling Hospital, uses the more frequently the word children to explain why and how mothers and Nurses must nurse, brest-fed their children themselves. Only twice in the book of 45 pages, he uses the word of “Nurseling” : “Ought it not therefore to be the care of every Nurse and every Parent, not only to protect their Nurselings from injury, but to be assured that their own officious services be not the greatest the helpless creatures can suffer” (p. 6)
- And p. 35, when he writes about sending the children out to country-nurses under the care of Inspectors : “how far these Nurses and their inspectors (who, I suppose, are some good Gentlewomen in the neighbourhood) may be persuaded out of their old forms, to treat their Nurselings a little more reasonably, is matter of much doubt”.
- So he uses this word in reference with wet nurses.
- In my view, the word “nourrisson” in French is related to the children who are breast fed (nourrir = nourrice = nourrisson) and also to those who are given to foster families (wet nurses). In XIXth century, physicians speak about “industrie nourricière” and “nourrissons”. Later the word was extended to mean “ infant”, baby, not in a pejorative sense but more as a word of tenderness. Finally, it was replaced by bébé in common language but medical doctors uses for a long time the word of “nourrisson” (cf Budin).
- All the best,
- Catherine Rollet (mail sent on 4 septembre 2013 09:06:49 HAEC)
- Also, "suckling" in English. John Wilmoth (mail sent on 5 septembre 2013 01:25:51 HAEC)
- According to discussion I added both terms nurseling and suckling with a reference to a potential nurse, not only the mother (XIXth century). (To be double checked)--Nicolas Brouard (talk) 09:47, 7 November 2017 (CET)
- No remark from Stan Becker (Double checked) --Nicolas Brouard (talk) 17:17, 28 December 2017 (CET)
323-6 infant (Double checked)
- The term 'infant may be used to denote a child who has not reached its first birthday, though in colloquial language it may be applied to
- to ALSO INCLUDE slightly older. Done.--Stan BECKER 18:51, 29 September 2014 (CEST)
324-7 (Double checked)
- th-ii: อายุเกษียน
- it-ii: età della pensione
- it-ii: età della quiescenza
- fr-ii: âge de la retraite
- French: 324-7 (help) Translated French term:
- French: âge de la retraite. This term, expression or paragraph was not translated and was missing according to the 1981-standard (French). It has been translated and is added to the Category:Coherent with the 1981-standard (French):
- missing (simplification): Faute de pouvoir préciser objectivement le début de la vieillesse6, on convient généralement de la faire commencer à un âge uniforme, éventuellement voisin de l’âge de la retraite 7
- Old age 6 is frequently used to define the period of life during which most persons are retired.--Nicolas Brouard 19:58, 30 December 2009 (UTC)
- The Trilingual Demographic Dictionary Arabic-English-French of 1988 uses retirement age. --Nicolas Brouard 18:56, 11 June 2012 (CEST)